LEARN A WORD A DAY

Monday, May 9, 2011

Grammar: English Tenses

tense
Affirmative/Negative/Question
Use
Signal Words
A: He speaks.
N: He does not speak.
Q: Does he speak?
§  action in the present taking place once, never or several times
§  facts
§  actions taking place one after another
§  action set by a timetable or schedule
always, every …, never, normally, often, seldom, sometimes, usually
if sentences type I (
If I talk, …)
A: He is speaking.
N: He is not speaking.
Q: Is he speaking?
§  action taking place in the moment of speaking
§  action taking place only for a limited period of time
§  action arranged for the future
at the moment, just, just now, Listen!, Look!, now, right now
A: He spoke.
N: He did not speak.
Q: Did he speak?
§  action in the past taking place once, never or several times
§  actions taking place one after another
§  action taking place in the middle of another action
yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1990, the other day, last Friday
if sentence type II (
If Italked, …)
A: He was speaking.
N: He was not speaking.
Q: Was he speaking?
§  action going on at a certain time in the past
§  actions taking place at the same time
§  action in the past that is interrupted by another action
when, while, as long as
A: He has spoken.
N: He has not spoken.
Q: Has he spoken?
§  putting emphasis on the result
§  action that is still going on
§  action that stopped recently
§  finished action that has an influence on the present
§  action that has taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking
already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
A: He has been speaking.
N: He has not been speaking.
Q: Has he been speaking?
§  putting emphasis on the course or duration(not the result)
§  action that recently stopped or is still going on
§  finished action that influenced the present
all day, for 4 years, since 1993, how long?, the whole week
A: He had spoken.
N: He had not spoken.
Q: Had he spoken?
§  action taking place before a certain time in the past
§  sometimes interchangeable with past perfect progressive
§  putting emphasis only on the fact (not the duration)
already, just, never, not yet, once, until that day
if sentence type III (
If I had talked, …)
A: He had been speaking.
N: He had not been speaking.
Q: Had he been speaking?
§  action taking place before a certain time in the past
§  sometimes interchangeable with past perfect simple
§  putting emphasis on the duration or courseof an action
for, since, the whole day, all day
A: He will speak.
N: He will not speak. 
Q: Will he speak?
§  action in the future that cannot be influenced
§  spontaneous decision
§  assumption with regard to the future
in a year, next …, tomorrow
If-Satz Typ I (
If you ask her, shewill help you.)
assumption: I think, probably, perhaps
(going to)
A: He is going to speak.
N: He is not going to speak.
Q: Is he going to speak?
§  decision made for the future
§  conclusion with regard to the future
in one year, next week, tomorrow
A: He will be speaking.
N: He will not be speaking.
Q: Will he be speaking?
§  action that is going on at a certain time in the future
§  action that is sure to happen in the near future
in one year, next week, tomorrow
A: He will have spoken.
N: He will not have spoken.
Q: Will he have spoken?
§  action that will be finished at a certain time in the future
by Monday, in a week
A: He will have been speaking.
N: He will not have been speaking.
Q: Will he have been speaking?
§  action taking place before a certain time in the future
§  putting emphasis on the course of an action
for …, the last couple of hours, all day long
A: He would speak.
N: He would not speak.
Q: Would he speak?
§  action that might take place
if sentences type II
(
If I were you, I would gohome.)
A: He would be speaking.
N: He would not be speaking.
Q: Would he be speaking?
§  action that might take place
§  putting emphasis on the course / duration of the action

A: He would have spoken.
N: He would not have spoken.
Q: Would he have spoken?
§  action that might have taken place in the past
if sentences type III
(
If I had seen that, I would have helped.)
A: He would have been speaking.
N: He would not have been speaking.
Q: Would he have been speaking?
§  action that might have taken place in the past
§  puts emphasis on the course / duration of the action



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Collection of SPM English Language Question Papers

2005
Terengganu Trial [Paper 1]

2007
Johor Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Terengganu Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Pahang Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2] [Answers], Melaka Trial 2007 [Paper 1] [Paper 2], TIMES [Paper 1] [Paper 2] SPB [Paper 1] [Paper 2]

2008

Terengganu Mid Year [Paper 1] [Paper 2],
Trial
MRSM Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], SBP Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Kelantan Trial [Paper 1 & 2], Terengganu Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Kedah Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Pahang Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Johor Trial [Paper 1 & 2], Perlis Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Sabah Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Sarawak Trial [Paper 1 & 2], Melaka Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2]

2009

Terengganu TOV [Paper 1] [Paper 2] Terengganu Mid Year [Paper 1] [Paper 2]
Melaka Trial , Johor Trial , Sabah Trial , Kedah Trial , Perlis Trial , Times , SBP , Pahang Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2]

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