Sunday, April 4, 2010

Subordinating Conjunctions

What is a conjunction?

A conjunction is a word that joins two or more words, phrases, or clauses.

Think of them as glue words. They glue words, phrases, or clauses together.

For example, if you would like to have your friend bring music and snacks to your party, it's pretty hard to do it without a conjunction.

You could say:

"Bring music. Bring snacks."

But it's more efficient to say:

"Bring music and snacks."

And it's more polite to say: conjunctions

"Please bring music and snacks."

See how the conjunction and glues the words music and snacks together?

Words, Phrases, and Clauses

Okay, read this question and then try to answer it with your eyes closed: What is a conjunction?

How did you do? Did you remember that they join words, phrases, and clauses?

Words: silver and gold

Phrases: over the river and through the woods

Clauses: Marianne planted a flower, and she watched it grow.

In all of the above examples, we used the conjunction and which is one of the most common conjunctions.

But, of course, there are many more conjunctions out there. While all conjunctions perform the same basic function (gluing things together), there are three types of conjunctions: coordinating, subordinating, and correlative.

what is a conjunction

What is a conjunction? It is a gluing word.

Coordinating Conjunctions

These are the most common, and there are only seven of them (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). Some people remember these with the acronym FANBOYS. They glue together sentence elements that are equal.

Such as...

Two words: pie or cake

Two phrases: in the car or on the bike

Two independent clauses: You must study, or you won't learn grammar.

Subordinating Conjunctions

These conjunctions glue subordinate clauses to independent clauses.

A subordinate clause is a clause that cannot stand alone. (Remember that a clause is a group of words with a subject and a verb.) It is always introduced by a subordinating conjunction.

Subordinate Clause Examples:

unless you are allergic

whenever I see your cat

since you are coming

These are not complete sentences. They all have subjects (you, I, you) and verbs (are, see, are coming), but since they cannot stand alone, they are subordinate clauses.

An independent clause is also a group of words with a subject and a verb. But, unlike a subordinate clause, an independent clause can stand alone.

Independent Clause Examples:

I will bring my cat.

I sneeze.

I won't bring my cat.

These are all complete sentences. They all have subjects (I), verbs (will bring, sneeze, won't bring), and they can stand alone.

Subordinating conjunctions let us join subordinate clauses with independent clauses:


I will bring my cat unless you are allergic.

Whenever I see your cat, I sneeze.

Since you are coming, I won't bring my cat.

Correlative Conjunctions

Correlative conjunctions are always used in pairs. (either... or, both... and).


Both David and I are allergic to cats.

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Collection of SPM English Language Question Papers

Terengganu Trial [Paper 1]

Johor Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Terengganu Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Pahang Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2] [Answers], Melaka Trial 2007 [Paper 1] [Paper 2], TIMES [Paper 1] [Paper 2] SPB [Paper 1] [Paper 2]


Terengganu Mid Year [Paper 1] [Paper 2],
MRSM Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], SBP Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Kelantan Trial [Paper 1 & 2], Terengganu Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Kedah Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Pahang Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Johor Trial [Paper 1 & 2], Perlis Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Sabah Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Sarawak Trial [Paper 1 & 2], Melaka Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2]


Terengganu TOV [Paper 1] [Paper 2] Terengganu Mid Year [Paper 1] [Paper 2]
Melaka Trial , Johor Trial , Sabah Trial , Kedah Trial , Perlis Trial , Times , SBP , Pahang Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2]