LEARN A WORD A DAY

Sunday, February 7, 2010

Tenses

Simply put, tense of the verb form means to show time. Verb that can tell us:

That an act or activity carried out at present.

That an action or activities conducted in the past.

That an act or activity carried out at a time will come.

A. Present Tense (present time)

1) Simple present tense (simple present time)

Explaining the events that occurred in the time now in the form of a simple or a work / deed done repeatedly, or daily habits, or events / actions that have nothing to do with time.

form:

I / we / you / they + Infinitive

He / she / it + Infinitive + s

a) Used to declare acts committed by habit

Example: I go to school every day. I went to school every day

b) Used to express general truths that can not be changed

Example: The sun rises in the east. The sun rises in the east

Note:

If the main sentence in the third person singular (he, she, it), then the basic form of the verb will experience changes in:

In general, the basic form of the verb (infinitive) plus s.

to speak speaks = talk

to help helps = help

Infinitive ending with vowels (vocals) plus ice.

to do does = do, do

go to goes = left

Infinitive that ends with a consonant (a consonant) ch, sh, s or x, plus ice.

to teach teaches = teach, teach

to wish wishes = hope, commend

Infinitive that ends with a vowel e, although the ending letter sounds z or j, plus s only.

to use uses = mengguakan, wearing

to change changes = change, exchange

Infinitive that ends with a consonant y is preceded by a consonant, y is replaced by i, then add ice.

to fly flies = fly

to study studies = learning

Infinitive that ends with a consonant y is preceded by a vowel, add s alone.

to buy buys = buy

to play plays = plays, plays

Infinitive not experience any changes if preceded by a helping verb can, could, may, wil, and so on.

Example: He can speak English. He can speak English

2) Present continuous tense (time lasted now)

Explain an action is in progress at the present time.

form:

To be (am, are, is) + present participle (Ing form)

for all the basic sentence both plural and singular.

a) Used to express actions in progress.

Example: They are studying English now. They are learning English now

b) Used to express actions that are temporary.

She is reading now but she will write soon. She was reading now, but he would soon write

c) Used to declare the act in question in the days to come.

We are writing again in a few weeks. We will send another letter in a few weeks

Exceptions:

Not all verbs can be used in the present continuous tense, though the sentence was pronounced when the incident took place. There is an important group of verbs that are usually not used in the present continuous:

1. Verbs of emotion, The verbs that express feelings: to like, to dislike, to refuse,

to wan.t etc..

Example: I like Mr. Brown. I like to host Brown (neither I am liking Mr. Brown)

2. Verbs of the senses, The verbs that express it, pancainder related to: to feel, to hear, to see, to smell, to taste, etc..

Example: I feel heavy in the head. I feel dizzy

3. Verbs of thought or opinion, The verbs that express thoughts or opinions: to

believe, to expect, to forget, to know, to prefer, to Realize, to think, to understand, Etc..

Example: I believe your word. I believe in the word you

4. Verbs of possession, The verbs which states: to own, to belong to, to owe, Etc..

Example: He owns two cars. He has two cars

How to Present Participle formation

At present participe generally formed by adding ing to the basic form of the verb.

Example:

to apply applying = use

to betray betraying = treason, betraying

go to going = go

If the basic form of the verb is monosyllabic and the pressure that ends with a

consonant preceded by a vowel, final consonant is doubled, And plus ing.

Example:

to cut cutting = cut

to dun Dunning = bill

to jog jogging = running slowly

If the infinitive is two syllables or more is the emphasis falls on the last syllable

and ending in a consonant preceded by a vowel, final consonant

duplicated then add ing.

Example:

to allot allotting = shared, giving

to begin beginning = beginning, start

to accur occurring = occurred

If the infinitive is two syllables ending in a consonant that L which is preceded by a

vocal, L is the last letter is doubled, And plus ing.

Example:

to control controlling = check, supervise

to propel propelling = push, move

If the monosyllabic infinitives or two that ends in a consonant L preceded by two

vocal pieces, L final consonants may not be copied, Only the plus ing course.

Example:

to sail sailing = sail, leaving

to seal sealing = closed, sealing

to conceal concealing = secretive, hiding

If the infinitive ends in vowel e is preceded by a consonant, e to be removed and

ing added.

Example:

to come coming = come

to change changing = to change, modify, exchange

to ride = horseback riding, riding (bikes, cars, etc.)

If the infinitive ends in vowel e is preceded by a vowel i, first ie replaced by y then add ing.

Example:

to die dying = wilted (flower)

to lie lying = lying, lying

to tie Tying = binding

3) Present perfect tense (when finished now)

Explaining the events that happened in the past that still has to do with the present but the time is not known.

form:

I / we / you / they + Have + Past Participle

He / she / it + Has + Past Participle

a) Used to declare an activity undertaken in the past and still have something to do with the time now.

Example:

She has taught English since five years ago. He has been teaching English since the fifth

years ago

I have lived here for three years. I have lived here for three years

b) Stating the events that happened

Example:

I have seen it. I've seen

c) Showing an action replay at a certain time not before now. Frequently used words such as before, already, ever, never, yet.

Example:

I have heard this before. I've heard this before

I have already seen him. I've met him

I have not ever been there. I was never there

d) Indicates a completed action in a short time. In this frequently used words such as at last, finally, just, recently.

Example:

The time has at last arrived. Finally it was time

Finally, she has started to sing. Eventually, he began to sing

I have just spoken to him. I just talked to him

4) Present perfect continuous tense (when completed in progress now)

Stating that the act which started in the past and still persists today.

form:

I / we / they + Have + Been + Present Participle

He / she / it + Has + Been + Present Participle

Example:

I have been staying at his place this month. I've been staying at home this month

We have been waiting for you since eight o'clock. We've been expecting you since eight o'clock

She has been studying Home for over three years. He has been learning English for more than three years

B. Past Tense (past tense)

1) Simple past tense (simple past tense)

Explaining the events that occur or action activities, actions and / or work done in the past in the form of a simple and well known to the timing of events or the work performed.

form:

I / we / you / they + Past Tense

his / her / it + Past Tense

a. Used to describe the deeds done in the past.

Example: I saw a good movie last night. I watch a good movie last night

He went to Surabaya last week. He went to Surabaya last week

2) Past continuous tense (time lasted past)

Stating events or acts that in progress in the past at other events that occur or other acts carried out

form:

I / he / she / it Was + Present Participle

We / you / they Were + Present Participle

a) Stating that the act already started and is still going on when the other acts followed in the past.

Example: While I was bathing in the river I heard a fearful cry. When I was bathing in the river, I heard a frightening scream

When you called me, I was listening to the radio. When you call me, I'm

listening to the radio

b) Stating that the act is going on in the past.

Example: He was watching television all afternoon yesterday. He was watching television all afternoon yesterday

3) Past perfect tense (past the closing time)

Explain an action that has been done in the past, or to explain the two events that have occurred, but insisted the incident which occurred first.

form:

Had + Past Participle

a. Used to describe an action that has finished before some other act done in the past.

For example, consider the two following events:

On Sunday morning, I painted my car. On Sunday morning, I painted my car

At lunch-time, my brother arrived. At lunch time, my brother I arrived

But to combine the two events, we use the past perfect tense:

Example: When my brother arrived, I had painted my car. When you worthy men I arrived, I had to paint my car

Specifically past perfect should be used when the time an action is more ancient past than other actions. The first act is complete we use past perfect and the second act we use simple past tense.

Example: The train had left before I arrived. The train had left before I arrived

I had copied the lesson before she came home. I have cited that lesson before he

home

4) Past perfect continuous tense (ongoing time over the past)

Stating that the act has begun and is still going on in the past.

form:

Had + Been + Present Participle

a. This form is used to indicate ongoing actions in the past.

Example: When I finished my dinner, Peter had been playing chess. When I finished eating, Peter has been playing chess

C. Future Tense (future)

1) Simple future tense (the time will come simple)

form:

I / we + Shall + Infinitive

You / they / he / she / it + Will + Infinitive

a) Used to declare the act to be done in time to come.

Example: I shall go to Bogor tomorrow. I will go to Bogor tomorrow

b) Used to make an appointment at a future time.

Example: He will meet you by ten. He will meet you before ten o'clock

c) Used to indicate requirements.

Example: He will give you a good dictionary if you go with him. He will give you a good dictionary if you go with him

d) Used to ask someone to do something.

Example: Will you please help me to get the book. Please give it to me

2) Future continuous tense (ongoing time will come)

form:

Shall / will + Be + Present Participle

a. Used to indicate an action that will be happening.

Example: I shall be working at nine o'clock tomorrow morning. I'd been working at nine o'clock tomorrow morning.

At this time next year, Agus will be traveling in Japan. Next year at this time, Agus will

was traveling in Japan.

3) Future perfect tense (when completed will come)

form:

Shall / will + Have + Past Participle

a. Used to describe the actions that had been started in the past, and once completed in time to come

Example: John will have done his work by the end of this week. John will finish work on

work towards the end of this week

4) Future Perfect Continuous Tense (in progress over time will come)

form:

Shall / will + Have + Been + Present Participle

Future perfect is but the act is likely to continue at that time will

come.

Example: By the end of this year we shall have been studying Germany for three years. Toward the end of this year we will have to learn the German language for three years

D. Past future tense (the time will come past)

1) Past future tense (the time will come in the past)

form:

I / we + Should + Infinitive

You / they / he / she / it + Would + Infinitive

a) To declare the act to be done in the past

Example: He would buy a car the previous day. He will buy a car the day before

b) To declare the act to be done if the conditions are met, in the past.

Example: He would come if you invited him. He will come if you invite

2) Past continuous tense future (time to be going on in the past)

form:

I / we + Should + Be + Present Participle

you / they / he / she / it + Would + Be + Present Participle

a. Used to describe the actions that will being done in the past.

Example: I should be taking an examination at this time the following day. I'd been taking the test the next day at this time

3) Past future perfect tense (time that would have done in the past)

form:

I / we + Should + Have + Past Participle

You / they / he / she / it + Would + Have + Past Participle

a. Used to express a supposition that does not happen because mugkin unmet condition is uncertain, but only as a shadow if requirements are met in the past.

Example: He would have graduated if he had studied hard. He would have finished school if he had studied hard (but now he did not graduate because he did not study hard)

4) Past future perfect continuous tense (time will already in progress in the past)

form:

I / we + Should + Have + Been + Present Participle

you / they / he / she / it + Would + Have + Been + Present Participle

is the future perfect continuous in the past tense.

Example: By the end of this month last semester, Siti would have been studying medicine at Padjadjaran University for five years. Toward the end of this month last semester, Siti would have studied medicine at the University of Padjadjaran for five years

Sixteen Summary Form Left

Present Tense

1) Simple present

Positive : I swim, You swim, He swims

Negative: I do not swim, You Do not swim, He does not swim

Question: Do I swim?, Do you swim?, Does he swim?

2) Present continuous

Positive : I am swimming, You are swimming, He is swimming

Negative: I am not swimming, You are not swimming, He is not swimming

Question: Am I swimming?, Are you swimming?, Is he swimming?

3) Present perfect

Positive : I have swum, swum You have, He has swum

Negative: I have not swum, You have not swum, He has not swum

Question: I have swum?, Have you swum?, Has he swum?

4) Present perfect continuous

Positive : I have been swimming, You have been swimming, He has been swimming

Negative: I have not been swimming, You have not been swimming, He has not been swimming

Question: Have I been swimming?, Have you been swimming?, Has he been swimming?

Past Tense

1) Simple past

Positive : I swam, swam You, He swam

Negative: I did not swim, You did not swim, He did not swim

Question: Did I swim?, Did you swim?, Did he swim?

2) Past continuous

Positive : I was swimming, You were swimming, He was swimming

Negative: I was not swimming, You were not swimming, He was not swimming

Question: Was I swimming?, Were you swimming?, Was he swimming?

3) Past perfect

Positive : I had swum, You had swum, He had swum

Negative: I had not swum, You had not swum, He had not swum

Question: I had swum?, Had you swum?, Had he swum?

4) Past perfect continuous

Positive : I had been swimming, You had been swimming, He had been swimming

Negative: I had not been swimming, You had not been swimming, He had not been swimming

Question: Had I been swimming?, Had you been swimming?, Had he been swimming?

Future Tense

1) Simple future

Positive : I shall swim, swim You will, He will swim

Negative: I shall not swim, You will not swim, He will not swim

Question: Shall I swim?, Will you swim?, Will he swim?

2) Future continuous

Positive : I shall be swimming. You will be swimming, He will be swimming

Negative: I shall not be swimming, You will not be swimming, He will not be swimming

Question: Shall I be swimming?, Will you be swimming?, Will he be swimming?

3) Future perfect

Positive : I shall have swum, You will have swum, He will has swum

Negative: I shall not have swum, You will not have swum, He will not have swum

Question: Shall I have swum?, Will you have swum?, Will he have swum?

4) Future perfect continuous

Positive : I shall have been swimming, will have been swimming, He will have been swimming

Negative: I shall not have been swimming, You will not have been swimming, He will not have been swimming

Question: Shall I Have been swimming?, Will you have been swimming?, Will he have been swimming?

Future Past Tense

1) Past future

Positive : I should swim, You would swim, He would swim

Negative: I should not swim, You would not swim, He would not swim

Question: Should I swim?, Would you swim?, Would he swim?

2) Past continuous future

Positive : I should be swimming, You would be swimming, He would be swimming

Negative: I should not be swimming, You would not be swimming, He would not be swimming

Question: Should I be swimming?, Would you be swimming?, Would he be swimming?

3) Past future perfect

Positive : I should have swum, You would have swum, He would have swum

Negative: I should not have swum, You would not have swum, He would not have swum

Question: Should I have swum?, Would you have swum?, Would he have swum?

4) Past future perfect continuous

Positive : I should have been swimming, You would have been swimming, He would have been swimming

Negative: I should not have been swimming, You would not have been swimming, He would not have been swimming

Question: Should I have been swimming?, Would you have been swimming?, Would he have been swimming?

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Collection of SPM English Language Question Papers

2005
Terengganu Trial [Paper 1]

2007
Johor Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Terengganu Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Pahang Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2] [Answers], Melaka Trial 2007 [Paper 1] [Paper 2], TIMES [Paper 1] [Paper 2] SPB [Paper 1] [Paper 2]

2008

Terengganu Mid Year [Paper 1] [Paper 2],
Trial
MRSM Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], SBP Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Kelantan Trial [Paper 1 & 2], Terengganu Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Kedah Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Pahang Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Johor Trial [Paper 1 & 2], Perlis Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Sabah Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2], Sarawak Trial [Paper 1 & 2], Melaka Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2]

2009

Terengganu TOV [Paper 1] [Paper 2] Terengganu Mid Year [Paper 1] [Paper 2]
Melaka Trial , Johor Trial , Sabah Trial , Kedah Trial , Perlis Trial , Times , SBP , Pahang Trial [Paper 1] [Paper 2]

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